Guide to a Second Citizenship

Global Citizenship By Investment

Global citizenship encompasses initiatives implemented by governments, offering citizenship to individuals in exchange for investments made within the respective country. Across the globe, numerous nations present programs facilitating the acquisition of citizenship through investment.

What Is Citizenship by Investment?

Recent years have seen numerous nations introduce citizenship by investment programs, aiming to stimulate economic, political, and tourism growth. These initiatives allow individuals to attain citizenship by investing in sectors like property, government funds, and banks, granting access to host country facilities. Criteria for citizenship through investment differ across countries.

Advantages of Citizenship by Investment

Citizenship through investment grants investors privileges, including access to education, healthcare, welfare, and more, akin to those enjoyed by citizens. Some countries extend these benefits to family members, and certain nations offer visa-free entry. Facilities vary based on each country’s policies.

What is Global Mobility

Global mobility in organizations facilitates employee relocation, managing tactical aspects like technology integration, legal compliance, and family support. It can also contribute strategically to talent development. Overseen by HR leaders, these programs play a crucial role in international employee transitions.

Access to Top-Notch Healthcare and Education

Acquiring citizenship provides crucial benefits in healthcare and education. Citizens gain health insurance, access to modern facilities, and educational opportunities like scholarships and government aid, reflecting the substantial advantages of attaining citizenship in the respective country.Formun ├ťst├╝

Safety and Security

Nations offering citizenship through investment are typically situated in continental Europe or the Caribbean, and are characterized by a high level of security. These countries boast low crime and theft statistics, ensuring the safety of residents. Additionally, they prioritize the financial, economic, educational, and welfare security of individuals within their jurisdictions.

Tax Benefits

An additional benefit associated with obtaining citizenship is the prospect of tax reduction or exemption. Numerous countries have implemented policies aimed at diminishing or waiving taxes to attract and incentivize investors.

Diversification of Assets

Through strategic investments in eligible countries, individuals not only secure citizenship but also have the opportunity to augment their wealth across diverse sectors, thereby capitalizing on the numerous advantages that citizenship affords. This includes earning interest in dollars from financial institutions and generating rental income from real estate, contributing to an overall increase in their financial portfolios.

The Firm of Global Citizens: Serka Law

Serka Law Firm is a distinguished international company specializing in facilitating citizenship acquisition and obtaining second passports across a portfolio of more than 10 countries in Europe, the Caribbean, and Turkey. With over a decade of expertise, our team of skilled lawyers adeptly manages the entire process of citizenship acquisition, offering comprehensive consultation services tailored to investment strategies.

global citizenship programs

Citizenship by Investment Programs

Countries and conditions for obtaining citizenship by investment

Citizenship by Investment programs are programs that allow you to obtain a second citizenship and passport. These countries grant Applicants a second passport and citizenship after investing in the country, with no residency or visit requirements. The main CBI program options include investment in real estate, investment through company incorporation or employment, and investment in deposits.

Countries offering citizenship by investment scrutinize the applicant’s criminal record and corrupt activities, such as money laundering, with extreme rigor. This process is a rigorous procedure called due diligence and getting support from a specialized law firm will ensure that your application process goes smoothly. A second passport from these countries entitles you to visa-free travel to more than 130 countries.

malta citizenship

Malta Citizenship

montenegrin citizenship

Montenegrin Citizenship

st. lucia citizenship

St. Lucia Citizenship

jordan citizenship

Jordan Citizenship

greece citizenship

Greece Citizenship

cyprus citizenship

Cyprus Citizenship

st. kitts citizenship

ST. Kitts Citizenship

egypt citizenship

Egypt Citizenship

austria citizenship

Austria Citizenship

north macedonia citizenship

North Macedonia Citizenship

dominica citizenship

Dominica Citizenship

grenada citizenship

Grenada Citizenship

vanuatu citizenship

Vanuatu Citizenship


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1- Malta Citizenship by Investment Program


Malta, distinguished for its political and economic stability, achieved a significant milestone in 2004 by becoming a member of the European Union. In 2020, the Maltese government introduced a pioneering program aimed at acquiring citizenship through investment. This initiative enables individuals to secure Maltese citizenship by making strategic investments for themselves and their families.

Non-refundable contribution

With an investment of a minimum of 600,000 euros, one has the opportunity to acquire Maltese citizenship within a 3-year timeframe. Alternatively, by investing a minimum of 750,000 euros, the option to obtain Maltese citizenship within a year becomes available. It is noteworthy that, in this process, a fee of 50,000 euros must be paid for each accompanying family member.

Rental or purchase

By purchasing a property with a minimum value of 700,000 euros or renting a property with an annual lease cost of at least 16,000 euros, individuals are eligible to apply for Maltese citizenship. It is important to note that the property acquired or leased must not be sold for a period of 5 years to maintain eligibility under this program.

Upon the confirmation of citizenship by the government, it is a requisite to contribute a sum of 10,000 euros to charities that have been officially endorsed and approved by the government.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • Failure to Pay Taxes
  • Possibility to relocate to the EU
  • Visa-free travel to over 180 countries
  • Capitalizing on a Flourishing and Stable Economy
  • possibility of obtaining citizenship for spouse and children.
malta citizenships

2- North Macedonia Citizenship By Investment Program


North Macedonia, as a member of the European Union, has demonstrated a steadfast commitment to multifaceted development across political, cultural, and economic domains. A noteworthy initiative in this pursuit is the citizenship acquisition program through capital investment, instituted by the government since 2019. The primary objective of this program is to enhance foreign investment in the country, fostering increased prosperity and contributing to overall economic growth.

Donation Route

One avenue for acquiring citizenship in North Macedonia involves investing in a government-approved private fund. The minimum capital requirement for this investment is 200,000 euros per applicant, and this amount must be maintained for a period of 2 years.

Investment Route

To secure North Macedonian citizenship through direct investment, a minimum investment of 400,000 euros per adult applicant is required. This investment should be directed towards new facilities, excluding those designated for hospitality purposes such as restaurants or shopping establishments. Additionally, the investor must commit to employing at least ten people for an indefinite period, spanning a minimum of one year.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • The opportunity to travel visa-free to over 130 countries.
  • The ability to pass on citizenship to children and subsequent generations.
  • Exemption from mandatory residence and language course requirements.
  • The attainment of citizenship in a European country characterized by a robust average income and a welcoming and hospitable culture.
north macedonia citizenship by investment program

3- Egypt Citizenship by Investment Program


Egypt, positioned at the crossroads of Africa and Asia with Cairo as its capital, is a member of the United Nations, African Union, and Economic Cooperation Organization.

As per the Egyptian Citizenship Law, foreign investors can acquire citizenship through financial contributions. A specialized unit oversees this program, designed to attract foreign direct investment.

Charitable Contribution

A donation of 250,000 USD to the state’s public treasury is required.

Real Estate Investment

Citizenship can be acquired through a real estate investment of 300,000 USD in government projects. The quantity of real estate is not a decisive factor. The individual seeking citizenship must refrain from selling the associated properties for a period of five years.

Business Investment

Egyptian citizenship may be obtained by investing 350,000 USD in a new or existing local business and making a charitable donation of 100,000 USD to the state treasury. However, the relevant business investment must have a minimum duration of five years.

Banking Deposit

A sum of 500,000 USD, to be repaid without interest in the local currency after three years, must be transferred to the state bank.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • Egypt stands among the top 5 countries with the most robust economies in Africa.
  • Its strategic geographical location at the crossroads of Africa, Europe, and the Middle East positions it as a key player.
  • Egypt is a member of both the Free Trade Area of the African continent and the World Trade.
  • Eligibility for an E-2 investor visa in the United States.

4- Dominica Citizenship By Investment Program


The Dominica Citizenship by Investment Programme (CBIU) offers lucrative opportunities for investors. This program stands as a prominent government initiative in the realm of acquiring citizenship through investment. Through a minimal investment, you can secure citizenship for both yourself and your family. Dominica, having a historical association as a former British colony and its current membership in prominent international organizations such as the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations, the Organization of American States, CARICOM, and others, presents a unique opportunity.

Economic Diversification Fund (EDF)

The Government of Dominica offers citizenship privileges to individuals through a non-refundable investment in the Economic Diversification Fund. This financial contribution is directed towards enhancing projects in both the public and private sectors that necessitate substantial financial support. The minimum capital required to acquire Dominica citizenship is $100,000, and this amount is subject to variation based on the specific circumstances of the applicant.

Dominica Real Estate Investment Options

An alternative route to obtain citizenship in Dominica is through the purchase of real estate valued at a minimum of 200,000 US dollars. To entice foreign investors, the government has initiated substantial development projects within the country. It’s imperative to note that the acquired property should not be sold for a minimum of 3 years following the attainment of citizenship. Additionally, the property owner who has acquired citizenship through the real estate purchase can only sell the property to a buyer with the same intent, after at least 5 years from the date of obtaining citizenship.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • Visa-Free Travel: Holders of Dominica citizenship can enjoy visa-free access to more than 140 countries, including those within the European Union.
  • Absence Requirement: There is no mandatory requirement for applicants to be physically present in Dominica during the citizenship application process.
  • Easier U.S. Visa: Possessing Dominican citizenship may facilitate the process of obtaining a U.S. visa.
  • Work and Study Rights: Citizenship in Dominica grants individuals the right to work, study, and engage in various activities within the country.
  • Dominica’s Favorable Tax Regime: Minimal tax obligations are a notable feature, with exemptions from wealth, gift, inheritance, foreign income, and capital gains taxes, as well as the absence of personal income tax for residents in Dominica.
dominica citizenship by investment program

5- ST. Kitts And Nevis Citizenship By Investment


Saint Kitts and Nevis, a nation composed of two islands in the Caribbean Sea, boasts a tropical climate. Accessibility is facilitated through direct flights connecting the island to both America and Europe. In a bid to spur economic growth and prosperity, the country has established the Citizenship by Investment program, widely acknowledged as one of the most forward-thinking and prominent citizenship initiatives. This endeavor is complemented by comprehensive development and modernization efforts across multiple sectors.

Contribution to the Sustainable Growth Fund (SGF)

One of the pathways to acquire citizenship in St. Kitts and Nevis is by investing in the Sustainable Growth Fund. This fund was initiated in response to the aftermath of a hurricane in the Caribbean.

The minimum investment amount required for participation in the Sustainable Growth Fund is set at $250,000. However, it’s important to note that this amount can vary depending on the number of individuals included in the application.

Kitts And Nevis Real Estate Investment Options

Another pathway to acquire citizenship in Saint Kitts and Nevis is through real estate investment. In order to entice a broad range of foreign investors, the government has introduced diverse real estate development projects, including villa projects and hotels. The minimum required investment for this option is $400,000, and it is imperative that the purchased property be retained for a duration of 7 years following the attainment of citizenship. Throughout the process of acquiring citizenship through property investment, certain government fees and documents must be covered.

Effective from Jul 2023, The minimum real estate investment required by law is US$400,000 (hotel or resorts limited share or condominium resalable after 7 years) or US$800,000 (family private homes) for each main applicant.

Public Benefit Option

An additional method for acquiring citizenship is by investing in the public interest. Citizenship can be obtained by investing a minimum of US$250,000 in an authorized public benefit project, with funds payable towards an approved public good.

Benefits of Saint Kitts and Nevis Citizenship

Visa-Free Travel: Possessing a St. Kitts and Nevis passport grants you the privilege of traveling to Europe and numerous other global destinations without the need for a visa.

Opportunities for Business Growth and Investment: Saint Kitts and Nevis serves as a distinctive conduit for fostering business expansion and investment ventures.

Fostering Business-Friendly Stability through Political and Legal Systems: A stable political and legal system builds investor confidence and guarantees the safeguarding of property rights and contracts. This stable environment cultivates favorable conditions for business activities, drawing in foreign investments and facilitating long-term planning and growth.

Citizenship Rights and Privileges: Acquiring citizenship grants full entitlement to all sherondan st. kitts and nevis rights.


6- Austria Citizenship by Investment Program and Golden Visa Program


Austria, a landlocked Central European country with nine states, is a member of the United Nations, European Union, OSCE, OPEC, and Interpol. Vienna is its capital, and it has been part of the Schengen Agreement since 1995. An Austrian residence permit allows visa-free travel within the Schengen Area. Initially issued for one year, the permit can be renewed seamlessly. Austrian citizenship is attainable after ten years of legal residence, with the possibility of reducing it to six years under certain conditions.

Austria Golden Visa requirements

  • Financial Sufficiency: A minimum of 40,000 Euros in cash, with varying requirements based on abundance.
  • Permanent Residence: Documentation of real estate (purchased or rented) serving as the permanent residence address for the applicant and accompanying individuals.
  • Health Insurance: Possession of private health insurance is mandatory.
  • Language Proficiency: Documented evidence of A1 level German knowledge is a requisite.

Advantages of the Austrian Golden Visa

  • Visa-Free Access to All European Schengen Countries
  • Potential for Independent Residence
  • Citizenship Eligibility After 10 Years of Residency

7-Montenegrin Citizenship By Investment Program


The Montenegrin Citizenship Law, crafted by the government, aims to attract foreign direct investment and boost economic activity. The Citizenship Acquisition Program requires applicants to contribute economically by investing in approved projects and funding underdeveloped regions. Successful applicants and their families gain citizenship within the defined regulatory framework.

Real Estate Investment

To secure Montenegrin citizenship through the Investment Program, a minimum investment of 450,000 euros in construction projects, specifically in the capital, Podgorica, is mandated.

An alternative pathway to acquire Montenegrin citizenship involves investing 250,000 euros in development projects situated in Northern or Central Montenegro, excluding the capital, Podgorica. This option is part of the Montenegrin Citizenship By Investment Program.

Government Fee

Additionally, there is a government application fee of 200,000 euros. This contribution is allocated to specific purposes, with 100,000 euros directed towards the advancement of underdeveloped regions and the remaining 100,000 euros allocated to the Montenegro Innovation Fund.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • Access to over 120 countries, encompassing Europe’s Schengen Area, Russia, and Turkey, either visa-free or through visa application.
  • Potential citizenship in an official European Union candidate country.
  • Opportunity for citizenship within a multicultural, multilingual European community featuring a mild Mediterranean climate, tourist attractions, and a cost-effective lifestyle.
  • Granting of full citizenship to both the applicant and their family members.
montenegrin citizenship by investment program

8- Vanuatu Citizenship by Investment Program


Similar to various nations, Vanuatu provides a Citizenship by Investment Program. Since 2017, the government has overseen this initiative, allowing individuals to acquire Vanuatu citizenship and avail themselves of various advantages. These benefits encompass enhanced travel freedom, the opportunity to immerse oneself in the distinctive local culture, and the ability to contribute to the development of various facets within the country.

National Development Fund

Applying for Vanuatu citizenship involves making a deposit of $130,000 to the National Development Fund. It’s important to note that this amount is subject to change based on the number of applicants, with adjustments reflecting increases in application volume.

Bank Deposit

An additional avenue to acquire citizenship is by depositing $250,000 in a bank operating within the country.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • It ranks among the most expedient citizenship programs globally.
  • Language testing is not a requirement.
  • Acquiring poetry without physical presence in the country of Vanuatu.
  • The potential for visa-free travel to numerous countries worldwide and acquiring citizenship for family members.
  • Applicants are not required to undergo language or history tests, reside in Vanuatu, or make a physical visit to the country.
vanuatu citizenship by investment program

9- Grenada Citizenship by Investment Program


Grenada, an English-speaking island nation, boasts an exotic natural landscape featuring mountains, waterfalls, and golden beaches enveloped by tropical rainforests, captivating even the most discerning travelers globally. In 2013, the government introduced a citizenship-by-investment program.

Real Estate Investment

Prospective applicants have the option to seek citizenship by making a minimum investment of $220,000 in government-approved projects.

National Transformation Fund

Prospective applicants may initiate the citizenship application process by contributing a minimum of $150,000 to the National Development Fund. It is essential to be aware that this financial commitment is non-refundable and is subject to adjustment based on the increasing number of applicants.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • The potential for visa-free travel to 130 countries, encompassing the European Union
  • The prospect of securing citizenship for family members
  • The option for multiple citizenships.
  • Notably, language proficiency is not a requirement, and the physical presence of the applicant is not mandatory.
  • There is no necessity for language proficiency or the physical presence of the applicant.
grenada citizenship by investment program

10 - Greece Citizenship by Investment Program and Golden Visa Program


Greece, situated in the eastern part of Europe with its capital in Athens, is renowned for its historical and touristic attractions.

Investment in Greece

The acquisition of Greek citizenship is facilitated through various avenues, including obtaining a Greek golden visa, being born to a Greek national parent, legally residing in Greece for a duration of 7 years, being married to a spouse of Greek nationality for a minimum of 3 years, and engaging in real estate investment.

A 5-year Greek residence permit is granted to foreign nationals upon investing 250,000 Euros in Greece. The residence permits of foreign nationals whose permits have expired are renewed if their investment amount in Greece remains at or above 250,000 Euros. Individuals holding a Greek residence permit through investment are eligible to apply for Greek citizenship after maintaining uninterrupted residence in Greece for a period of 7 years.


  • The applicant must not be an EU citizen.
  • The applicant must be over 18 years old and in good health.
  • Health insurance is a prerequisite.
  • A qualified real estate investment must be made, and it must be held for the entire residence permit period.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • The applicant, their spouse, children up to the age of 21, and the parents of the applicant and spouse benefit from this right.
  • Visa-free travel to over 170 countries, including the USA, Canada, and Europe.
  • Retirement in a secure country with a warm climate.
  • Access to European standard education for the applicant’s children.
  • Relatively affordable real estate prices.
  • Tax advantages.
  • Freedom to hold more than one passport (dual citizenship rights exist).
greece citizenship by investment program and golden visa program

11 - Cyprus Citizenship by Investment Program and Golden Visa Program


Cyprus, positioned in the Mediterranean in the southeastern part of Europe, is formally recognized as an island nation. The Republic of Cyprus is situated to the south of Turkey and to the east of Greece. Its geopolitical location and noteworthy tax incentives make it a magnet for investors on a global scale. Often characterized as the ‘bridge between East and West,’ Cyprus holds the status of a member state within the European Union. Enterprises established in Cyprus benefit from access to one of the world’s most extensive free trade zones. Moreover, the island boasts a predominantly warm climate.

Real Estate Investment

Cypriot citizenship can be obtained by making an investment of 2,000,000 euros.

Donation Funds

One cost-effective method to obtain Cypriot citizenship is by making an irrevocable payment of 150,000 euros to the donation fund.


While the real estate investment can be reduced to 500,000 euros after five years, it is important to note that the applicant is prohibited from selling this investment during their lifetime. The government imposes a processing fee of 2,000 Euros for each adult involved in these transactions, along with a fee of 80 Euros for each individual under the age of 18.

Furthermore, the main applicant is required to be 18 years or older, and all applicants must have resided in Cyprus for a minimum of six months. The investor seeking citizenship must be a citizen of a third country, not holding EU citizenship, and it is mandatory for the applicant to possess a clean criminal record.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • Visa-Free Access: Benefit from visa-free access to 175 countries and territories, encompassing the Schengen area, EU members, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
  • Permanent Residence and Work Permit: Investors are granted a permanent residence and work permit in Cyprus, extending to any other EU country.
  • Inclusion of Family Members: Family members can also acquire a Cypriot passport.
  • No Compulsory Residency Requirement: There is no mandatory requirement to reside in Cyprus.
cyprus citizenship by investment program and golden visa program

12 - Residency and Citizenship in Jordan


Jordan is an economically and politically stable country located on the Arabian Peninsula. The Jordanian government grants citizenship to wealthy foreign individuals who wish to make a significant, qualified investment in the country. Under this program, individuals and their immediate family members can become Jordanian citizens and the process can be completed within three months.

Conditions of Jordanian Citizenship

The Jordan Citizenship Investment Program requires a foreign individual to invest in either a bank deposit, treasury bills, securities, small and medium-sized enterprises, or a local job creation project.

Applicants are required to fulfill one of the following investment options in the country.

Bank deposits and treasury bills

Place a deposit of $1 million with the Central Bank at zero interest for a period of not less than three years; purchase $1 million in Treasury bills with a term of not less than six years at an interest rate determined by the Central Bank.

Shares and/or units of companies

Acquisition of at least US$1.5 million worth of shares and/or units of Jordanian-owned companies, provided they have been held for at least three years.

Small and medium-sized enterprises (job creation project)

Launching an investment project in the province of Amman with a capital of at least US$1 million (US$750,000 for a project registered outside Amman); the project must create at least 20 jobs (at least 10 jobs for a project in a province outside Amman).

Documented proof of investment must be submitted during the application process.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • Visa-free or visa on arrival in more than 50 countries
  • Citizenship that applies to the entire family, including the applicant’s spouse, children (single, widowed or divorced daughters and sons under the age of 18) and dependent parents
  • Citizenship of a calm and stable country in the Middle East
  • Citizenship of a country that plays an active role in the United Nations and is a member of the World Trade Organization
residency and citizenship in jordan

13 - St. Lucia đíitizenship by ─░nvestment program

St. Lucia is an island nation located in the Caribbean Sea. Unusual nature, tropical forests, several national parks, sandy beaches with azure ocean and friendly, hard-working local population attract up to 300 thousand tourists every year. In 2015, the Government of Saint Lucia launched the Citizenship by Investment program.

There are four investment options: government funds, business, real estate or bonds. Investments in bonds and real estate can be repaid five years after citizenship.

Charitable contribution

A donation of 100 000 USD to the National Economic Fund is required.

Real Estate Investment

Purchase of real estate worth at least USD 300,000 in a government-approved property. The real estate must be in the possession of the investor for at least five years from the date of purchase.

Business Investment

Investment of USD 3.5 million in an approved business project and the creation of at least three permanent jobs. Joint investments totaling at least USD 6 million (each applicant must contribute at least USD 1 million) and the creation of at least six jobs are also possible.

Banking Deposit

This method involves the purchase of at least $500,000 worth of non-interest bearing St. Lucia government debentures. The purchased bonds are in the name of the principal applicant and must be owned by him/her for at least 5 years.

Advantages of Citizenship Acquisition

  • A St. Lucia passport gives freedom to travel the world. An investor and his family members who obtain Saint Lucian citizenship can travel to 115 countries without visas. Another 31 countries allow St. Lucians to obtain a visa on arrival.
  • Citizens of Saint Lucia can apply for a 10-year tourist visa to the United States in 2 weeks at the nearest consulate.
  • Saint Lucia’s taxation is favorable for residents: income and capital earned outside the country are not taxed.
    The purchase of real estate and land is taxable. No land license fee is charged for the purchase of real estate under the citizenship program.


Global citizenship is a concept that extends beyond national borders. It is cultivated through diverse means, including international travel, language acquisition, engagement in global studies, participation in volunteer initiatives, and staying informed about global news and challenges.

A global citizen transcends the conventional notion of national citizenship, embracing a sense of belonging to the broader world. This concept entails perceiving oneself on a grander and more interconnected scale, emphasizing a global perspective. In contrast, obtaining citizenship in another country is a legal status governed by specific regulations. It is imperative to acknowledge that individuals can, through investment and the acquisition of citizenship, augment their global citizenship by broadening their worldview and elevating their standard of living.

The process of acquiring citizenship through investment in Turkey and Caribbean countries is notably streamlined compared to other jurisdictions, characterized by a more lenient regulatory environment. Engaging in collaboration with Serka Law Firm ensures a meticulous and error-free execution of the citizenship acquisition process.

Dominica stands out as one of the most economical options for obtaining citizenship, with a minimum investment requirement of at least $100,000. Following Dominica, countries such as Vanuatu and Macedonia are also recognized for their cost-effectiveness in citizenship acquisition.

Caribbean countries, including Saint Kitts and Nevis, Vanuatu, and Dominica, along with Turkey, are recognized for expeditious processes in obtaining citizenship. The timeframe for acquiring citizenship in the Caribbean countries typically ranges from 3 to 6 months, while in Turkey, the process generally takes about 6 months.

st. lucia Đüitizenship by i╠çnvestment program
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